Spin down external disk during boot/startup

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I’ve looked around and didn’t find an answer to an old problem I’ve got. Using a Thinkpad T410 on Xubuntu 20.04 I’ve added an external drive into the Ultrabay slot. I created some udev rules and systemd services to force the disk to spin down. Which works so far.
But: When booting, the udev rule spins down the drive pretty early in the boot process. Immediately after I log in, the disk spins up again. I could not find out which process does that. The drive is not contained in fstab, it will be mounted via gvfs (icon click).
My workaround is a systemd timer, that spins down the drive after a certain time. This I’d like to prevent.
This problem is not specific to Ubuntu, other distros behave the same…
My question is how to analyze which process is responsible for waking up the drive. This happens only in a boot process. Suspend and hibernate go different ways and it is no problem to spin down the disk in this state.

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